Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) commonly refers to catalytic hydrogenation of coal in a recycled oil solvent at high pressures with a catalyst. While a range of process configurations have been proposed, the most common version involves at least two high pressure slurry reactors in a series using a dispersed iron-based catalyst and hydrogen supplied from a parallel gasification system. Typically, the liquefaction
The primary chemical reaction of direct coal liquefaction is hydrogenation of the coal to break the coal into smaller molecules and increase the hydrogen:carbon ratio. Addition of hydrogen also removes the heteroatoms nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen by converting them to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water, respectively. Some combination of iron, nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum catalysts can be used to
Coal liquefaction originally was developed at the beginning of the 20th century. The best-known CTL process is Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FT), named after the inventors Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in the 1920s. The FT synthesis is the basis for indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technology. Friedrich Bergius, also a German chemist, invented direct coal liquefaction (DCL) as a way to convert lignite into synthetic oil in 1913.
La liquéfaction du charbon désigne les procédés physico-chimiques qui permettent d'obtenir des hydrocarbures liquides à partir de charbon. Ces procédés, connus depuis le début du XXe siècle, connaissent au début du XXIe siècle un regain d'intérêt en raison de la différence de prix croissante entre le charbon et le pétrole. On utilise alors plus fréquemment l'abréviation CTL, soit en anglais Coal to Liquids
In direct liquefaction, coal is exposed directly to hydrogen at high temperatures (450C) and high pressures (14000-20000kPa) for approximately one hour in the presence of a solvent that breaks down the hydrocarbon structure. Catalysts are used to improve rates of conversion of coal from solid to liquid form. The resulting liquid coals have molecular structures that require further upgrading to produce
Direct coal liquefaction involves contacting coal directly with a catalyst at elevated temperatures and pressures with added hydrogen (H2), in the presence of a solvent to form a raw liquid product which is further refined into product liquid fuels.
Coal liquefaction is a process in which coal is converted into liquid fuels or petrochemicals. There are several processes used to accomplish this task, the two most common being the "indirect route" and the "direct route". The indirect route is composed of 2 steps: First, coal is gasified with steam and oxygen to produce a synthesis gas (syngas), which is then cleaned to
16/06/2020· Shenhua, a Chinese coal mining company, decided in 2002 to build a direct liquefaction plant in Erdos, Inner Mongolia,with barrel capacity of 20 thousand barrels per day (3.2 × 10 ^ 3 m 3 /d) of liquid products including diesel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and naphtha (petroleum ether). First tests were implemented at the end of 2008. A second and
Direct Coal Liquefaction with Fe3O4 Nanocatalysts Prepared by a Simple Solid-State Method. Energies 2017, 10 (7),886. DOI: 10.3390/en10070886. Wen Li, Zong-Qing Bai, Jin Bai, Xiao Li. Transformation and roles of inherent mineral matter in direct coal liquefaction: A mini-review. Fuel 2017, 197, 209-216. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.02.024. Rohan Stanger, Quang Anh Tran,
The process of direct coal liquefaction was developed in the 1920's in Germany. Until the mid 1950's the process was operated at several sites in Germany to derive liquid hydrocarbons from coal as a substitute to standard crude oils. In the 80's and 90's the Kohleoel-Anlage in Bottrop plant was operated for almost 20 years, of which the last years were in heavy oil upgrading
This presents a brief state of the art review of direct coal liquefaction. The review includes important pilot scale processes availe for the liquefaction an a brief description of the
Direct liquefaction of coal can be achieved with and without catalysts (represented by R), using high pressures (200 to 700 atmospheres) and temperatures ranging between 425 and 480 °C (800 and 900 °F). In the indirect liquefaction process, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas and then converted to liquid fuels: The principal variables that affect the yield and
Direct liquefaction converts solid coal directly into liquid form with no intermediate step, which results in only the partial dismantling of the coal structure. Indirect liquefaction requires an intermediate gasification of the solid coal to form a synthesis gas, which is then converted to the liquid product. This process results in the complete dismantling of the coal structure. In direct
Reason for Discussion of Direct Liquefaction of Coal in Gasifipedia As the following discussion of Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) explains, the fundamental process approach of DCL does not involve gasification at all. Therefore it would seem to be entirely out of scope of Gasifipedia. However, the following considerations require that discussion of DCL be included:
Interest in direct coal liquefaction steadily decreased during the 1980s as the p of crude oil dropped; there is now only one integrated coal liquefaction pilot plant active full time in the United States. The economics derived early in the decade established the p of transportation fuels from coal at $80 per barrel or higher. However, there have been dramatic improvements
This studies the properties of the blends composed of DCLR (direct coal liquefaction residue) and asphalt using two different processing methods, compares the regulation that the DCLR additive content and processing method take influence on the high-temperature properties, low-temperature properties and durability of the blends. It is found that the DCLR can improve